SKELTON - IN - CLEVELAND
IN HISTORY

Page 33.

THE LAY SUBSIDY OF 1301. SKELTON TAXPAYERS.
Groat and Farthing of Edward I.
1 Groat = 4 pennies.
1 Farthing = ¼ of a penny.
At the Parliament held at Lincoln in 1301, with the King, Edward I in attendance, a lay subsidy was authorised. This was a tax on the whole population which was to be based on a fifteenth part of each person's movable possessions. Edward I, also known as "Longshanks" had subdued Welsh rebellions and at great expense build enormous Castles to maintain control there. He was now in the process of attempting the same in Scotland and needed funds to pay for his campaigns. Among his foes over the border were the direct descendants of the De Brus family of Skelton Castle, destined to take the throne in 1307.
Just four years previously the people had been taxed on a ninth part of their movable assets.
The taxmen appointed for the North Riding of Yorkshire were Alexander de Cave and Robert Gower. What must have been an enormous administrative task was completed in a year or so and they collected 1,668 13s. 9d. Nationally around fifty thousand pounds was added to the King's coffers.
The 63 taxpayers for Skelton who are listed below paid 5 13s 0¾d. Multiplying this by 15 gives the total value of the villagers possessions as 84 6s 8¼d.
Amounts were in the system that was used right up until February 1971, where 12 pennies made one shilling and 20 shillings made one pound. A penny was sub-divided into halfpennies and quarter pennies [farthings]. Records in those times were kept in Latin and amounts were entered on the rolls in Roman numerals with l, [libra] for pounds, s, [solidus] for shillings and d, [denarius] for pennies. A halfpenny was o. for obulus and a farthing q. for quarta. Similarly people's names were recorded in a form of bastardised Latin with bits of French and English. The idea of family names was just beginning and most folk were recorded by their trade or the place-name that they came from.
It is hard to envisage what the money amounts represent or how the taxmen could be consistent in their valuations, but, as examples, their records in similar parts of England valued a horse or a cow at 5 shillings; a sheep at 1 shilling; a blacksmith's tools at 5 shillings.
Land and buildings were not included. Walter Fauconberg of Skelton Castle paid the highest amount of 17s 9d and also paid 1 6s 8d in the return for nearby "Merske cum Redekerre".
The wealth of the Church is evidenced by the amount paid by the Prior of Guisborough, over 18 for possessions all round the area.
The assets of the person who paid the smallest amount in Skelton, Peter "Glew" were valued at 3s 1½d and there must have been many other villagers who had even less and were not included - labourers, servants, the young and old.
Name
as on Lay Subsidy Roll
Name
Possible  meaning

Amount paid
As shown on Roll
Amount in
£     s      d

Value of  Goods
£        s          d
Waltero de Faucomberge
Walter Fauconberg of Skelton Castle
xvijs    ixd              17    9
13      6          3
Ricardo Mercatore
Richard the Merchant
           ixd      o.              9½
        11        10½
Hugo de Laysingby
Hugo of Lazenby
  ijs      ixd          q.        2    9¼
 2       1          6¾
Petro de Estgate
Peter of Eastgate
  ijs     vijd     o. q.        2    7¾
 1      19         8¼
Radulpho Throstelle

           iijd          q.              3¼
          4          0¾
Thoma le Paynerman
Thomas the pack horse driver            vjd     o.              6½
          8          1½
Willelmo Carpentario
William the Carpenter
            xd             10
        12          6
Johanne Prest
John the Priest
  ijs      vjd     o.        2     6½
 1     18          1½
Ada

            vd     o.  q.              5¾
          7          2¼
Willelmo Sunb'

 iijs       jd      o.  q.         3    1¾
 2       7          2¼
Helya le Waynman
Helya the cart driver
          xjd           q.
           11¼
        14          0¾
Willelmo de Ingelby
William of Ingleby
          iiijd
             4
          5          0
Johanne Clerico
John the Clergyman
         xixd     o.  q.
       1     7¾
 1       4          8¼
Johanne Play

 ijs      vjd
       2     6
 1     17          6
Petro Glew

           ijd     o.
              2½
          3          1½
Gilberto Russelle

 ijs    viijd     o.
       2     8½
 2       0          7½
Alano Falcroke

           vd          q.
              5¼
          6          6¾
Gilberto Tan
Gilbert the Tanner
           vd     o.  q.
              5¾
          7          2¼
Andrea Carnifice
Butcher
ijs       vjd
      2      6
 1     17          6
Gode

ijs        vd
      2      5
 1     16          3
Nicholao de Naulton
Nicholas of Naulton
          vjd    o.
              6½
           8         1½
Thoma filio Eduse
Thomas son of Eduse
          vjd    o.
              6½
           8         1½
Hamando Stayard

          iijd     o.  q.
              3¾
           4         8¼
Rogero filio Ade
Roger, son of Ade
        xvjd     o.
      1      4½
  1       0         7½
Roberto Tratel
Robert Trattles
       xiiijd     o.  q.
      1      2½
         18         1½
Roberto Glewe

        xixd    o.  q.
      1      7¾
 1        4         8¼
Roberto le Parcour
Robert the Gamekeeper
        xixd    o.  q.
      1      7¾
 1        4         8¼
Stephano de Monte
Stephen who lives on the Hills
ijs       ijd
      2      2
 1      12         6
Alicia filia Walteri
Alice, daughter of  Walter
          vjd    o.  q.
              6¾
           8         5¼
Roberto le Carter
Robert the Carrier by cart
        xiiijd    o.  q.
      1      2¾
         18         5¼
Alicia Piper

         iiijd
              4
           5         0
Willelmo Wetherby
William of Wetherby
         iiijd
              4
           5         0
Rogero Banger

          xd
            10
         12         6
Ada Porcario
Ada the pig keeper
        xvd    o.
      1      3½
         19         4½
parvo Rogero
Little Roger
          vd    o.  q.
              5¾
           7         2¼
Cecilia Swyn

         vjd    o.
              6½
           8         1½
Ada de Burgate
Ada of Boroughgate
ijs              o.
      2      0½
 1       10        7½
Waltero Fullone
Walter the Fuller [cloth]
iiijs     ijd
      4      2
 3         2        6
Willelmo filio Michaelis
William, son of Michael
        iiijd
              4
            5        0
Thoma Pilcheprest

         vjd
              6
            7        6
Johanne filio Petri
John, son of Peter
        vijd
              7
            8        9
Willelmo Hornet

         vjd     o.
              6½
            8        1½
Willelmo filio Petri
William, son of Peter
ijs     vijd     o.   q.
      2      7¾
 1       19        8¼
Johanne Goceman

iijs     vjd     o.   q.
      3      6¾
 2       13        5¼
Petro Scot
Peter Scott
         xjd
             11
          13        9
Willelmo Pistore
William the Baker
iijs     iiijd    o.   q.
      3       4¾
 2       10      11¼
Petro filio Willelmi Bayan
Peter, son of William Bayan
       xiiijd
      1       2
          17        6
Roberto Bussel
Perhaps Russel
         xjd           q.
              11¼
          14        0¾
Ricardo de Coquina
Richard the Cook
       xxjd
      1        9
 1         6        3
Johanne Fabro
John the Blacksmith
vs     vijd    o.
      5        7½
 4         4        4½
Willelmo de Merske
William of  Marske
       xvjd    o.
      1        4½
 1         0        7½
Henrico de Scalinge
Henry of Scaling
         ixd    o.   q.
                9¾
           12       2¼
Petro ad Fontem
Peter who lives by the Spring
        vijd    o.
                7½
             9       4½
Jonna ad Pontem
John who lives at the bridge
         ixd    o.   q.
                9¾
           12       2¼
WillelmoTextore
William the Weaver
        iiijd    o.
                4½
             5       7½
Willelmo Figulo
William the Potter
        xxd
      1        8
 1          5       0
Thoma de Brun
Thomas Brown
ijs      vd
      2        5
 1        16       3
Alicia relicta Petri Marescalli
Alicia, widow of Peter Marshall
iijs    xjd    o.
      3      11½
 2        19       4½
Ada filio Petri Marescalli
Ada, daughter of  Peter Marshall
iiijs  viijd    o.
      4        8½
 3        10       7½
Hugone Pykewastelle

iijs     ijd    o.
      3        2½
 2          8       1½
Roberto de Merske
Robert of Marske
ijs      jd    o.   q.
      2        1¾
 1         12      2¼
Willelmo Carpentario
William the Carpenter
        ixd
                9
            13      3
Willelmo filio Walteri
William son of Walter
         xd    o.   q.
               10¾
            13      5¼
Total of  63 Taxpayers


5    13       0¾
84         6       8¼

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